After the death of Jesus Christ, St. Piere the Apostle came to the city and preached between the years 29 and 40. the follewers of Jesus Christ were first called as “Christian” here.
If you want to have a good time and sea beautiful places Eskisehir is the best city for you. The population of the students is as three times as local population. The students have many advantages in this city. You can go out anytime you want. You can eat out any hour you like. You can go to the cinema at late hours. You can walk in the streets safely.
There are two malls called Kanatli and Espark where you can find everything you want. They have many cafes, shops, stores, cinemas and also large parking garages. You can do shopping, buy toys, eat something at the restaurants and cafes, watch films at one of the cinemas. You can also find every technological item you want.
If you are interested in history you can also visit the old hauses of Odunpazari, in Eskisehir. They had been built perfectly but because of having been harmed in the time they have all been restorated. there are some other historical places in other countries of Eskisehir.
There is a place called Kent Park. You can take the advantages of havin sports activities, entertainment and also resting. Eventough there is not sea, there is a human made beach in it. The beach has 350 metters length and it has two swimmingpools. Instead of sea they used the water of Porsuk. In summer people go there to swim and sunbath. It is a quite modern place. If you prefer Eskisehir, you can have the opportunities of a historical and cultural trip and also enjoy it.
The Second Biggest Mosaic Museum of The World in Antakya / Hatay / Turkey.
The archeological resarch in Hatay has launched in 1932 under the supervision of the Louvre Museum, Baltimore Art Museum, Worchester Art Museum and Princeton University. In 1936, the representatives Fogg Art Museum of the Harvard University and Dumbarton Oaks College joined into the committee. Upon the request of French Inspector of Syrian Antiquities, M. Prost, it was decided to establish a museum in order to bring together all of items uneartled in the Sanjak. The museum plan was developed by M. Misel Eceser within the modern museum context. The characteristics of unearthed items were taken into consideration when the museum plan was improving. The construction was started in 1934 and completed in 1939.
Howard Crosby Buther from Princeton University had the excavations started. The excavations were carried out by the team of Charles Rufus Morey, Jean Lassus (archeeologist) and William Campbell. This team brought to light most of the mosaics which are on display today.
The Museum of Archeology houses some of the artifacts unearthed in the excavations carried out in Tell Cüdeyde, Tll Dahap, Catalhoyuk, Tell Taniat and Tel el Sheyik Mounds by the Chicago Oriental Institute between 1933 and 1939. Others were uncovered in El Mina location of Samandag Sistirict by Sir Leonard Wolley from the British Museum between 1937 and 1948. The excavations came to an end due to the World War II.
Excavated items had been kept in stores until 1939. Following the incorporation of Hatay into the borders of Turkey, the items were arranged in 9 years and the Museum of Archeology was opened for visitors July 23,1948. The museum was extended by an additional building which was constructed between 1969 and 1973. After that the museum exhibits were redesigned. The museum was reopened for the public on December 18, 1974. A new hall was designed for the Sarcophagus of Sidemera in 2000.
Mosaic: The history of mosaic goes back to the end of 4th millennium BC. Mosaics were firstley used as decorative element on the colums embedded in the walls in a temple at the ancient city Ouruk, southern Mesepotamia. These were the pieces of cockleshells, onyx and clay in geometric shapes. Their color were black, red and white. On the other hand, mosaics decorated jewels in Egypt.
Hatay Museum of Archeology occupies an importand place in the world in terms of its mosaic collection. It plays host tı the mosaics designed between second and fifth centuries A.D. Doro Levi, who put the mosaics into the chronological order, states that the characteristics of Hellenistic mosaic art such as naturalist appoach and richness in color survived with the Eastern style in Antakya. The common scenes on the mosaics were mythological and natural elements, daily life and abstract ideas. The names of artists are not encountered on the mosaics. It is known that the artists travelled for commercial purposes in the Ancient Period. The shadowing techniques and glass mosaics reveal the efforts of the Romans in order to reach perfection in the artof mosaics. The multicolored and figurative floor mosaics demonstrate the welfare in Antakya during the Roman Periond. Moreover, the trasition period between the Roman Period. Moreover, the transition period between the Roman and Byzantine Empires can be observed through the stylistic and iconographic aspects of the mosaics. More specifically, the changes in life style while paganism was replaced by Christianity can be caughe in the mosaics.
Mosaic of Okeanos Tethys, which was found in Harbiye, dates back to the 4th century A.D. The Sea God Okeanos was one of the 12 Titan children of Gaia (Mother Earth) while Tethys is the Sea Goddess, sister of Okeanos.
Unearthed in Antakya, Mosaic of Soteria is from the 5th century A.D. It was decorating the floor of a bathroom.
Unearthed in Samandag, the mosaic is from the 2nd or 3rd centuries A.D. Dancers with bells in their hands are depicted.
Found in Tarsus, Mosaic of Orpheus is from the 3rd century A.D. In the first panel, Zeus is taking Ganymedes (the most beautiful among the mortals, from the king family in Troy) by force to Olympos. In the other panel, Orpheus is playing an instrument. Orpheus is poet and the founder of Orphism.
Unearthed is Antakya, the mosaic is from the 2nd century A.D. It details Heracles strangling two boas.
Unearthed in Samandag, the mosaic is from the 3rh century A.D. It depicts Eros sleeping under the tree which he has hung his arrows on. On the other hand, Psyche carrying a bow is reaching for the arrows slowly.
Unearted in Harbiye, Mosaic of Seasons belongs to the 2nd century A.D. It details nine scenes. Bellerophon-Stheneboia (between summer and autumn) Paris – Helena (between autmn and winter). Hippolytos – Phedra (between winter, spring and summer). Kalidon (Atalanta – Meleagros) (between spring and summer). At the centre are Iason, Medeia and Assyrtos.
Found in Daphne (Harbiye), Mosaic of Apollo and Daphne belongs to the 3rd century A.D. Daphne is the daugher of Thessalia River, Peneus. Apollo is the son of Leto and Zeus. The mosaic details the nymph, Daphne, who was changed into a laurel tree by her father, river god while she is escaping from Apollo according to the classical mythology.
Found in Harbiye, it belong to the 5th century A.D. The Great Spirit (Magalopsykhia) and mythological figures named as Akteo, Hippolytos and Meleagros hunting around the Spirit are depicted in the middle part. On the edges, human and building figures (merchants, tracellers, stadium, bath…etc.) which reflect the daily life in Antakya are detailed.
Where Is The Museum:
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History of Hatay (Antakya):
The first settlement in Hatay dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Period. Çevlik in Hatay-Samandag and Senkoy caves in the village of Meydan were the sites first settled. Dortyol-Kinet Mound was Neolithic settlement while the Amik Plain was inhabited in the Chalcolithic (5500BC) (Tell Kurdu Mound) and Bronze Ages. The region was dominated by the Akkadians in 3000BC. Then , it became under the sovereignty of the Yamhat Kingdom with Aleppo. Yarim-Lim administration was ended in the second half of the 18th century BC and the Hittite King Mursili I invaded the region in 1595 BC. Atcana region handed back and forth between the Egyptians, Mitannis and Hittites in the 15th century BC.
Niqmepa ascended to the thore with the suport of Egyptian Tutmosis III, then, however, the region become again under the rule of Mitannis. In 1370 Hittite King Suppiluliuma regained the control of the region. The flow of information about the history of region had been between 1200 and 900 B.C.
The beating heart of Turkey which bares the footprints of many civilizations.
Ankara is located in the Central Anatolian Region, surrouned by the provinces of Kırıkkale and Kırşehir in the East, Cankiri in the North, Bolu in the Northwest, Eskisehir in the West, and Konya adn Aksaray in the South. Ankara covers an area of 26,897 km2 between plains formed by the Kızılirmak and Sakarya rivers at an altitude of nearly 890 meters. North from the centre of town lie the North from the centre of town lie the Northern and depression zones enclosed by mountains, which run from the Soutwest to the Northeast. The Salt Lake, a large shallow lake, and adjacent tip of the Ankara plains.
The Ethnography Museum: The museum is opposite the Opera House on Talat Pasa Boulevard. There is a fine collection of folkloric artifacts as well as artifacts from Seljuk and Ottoman mosques (Open every day, except Monday.) The museum exhibits precious example of Turkish traditional handicrafs, such as wood, metal and fabric works from different region of the country. The museum also provides visitors with a library specializing in Anatolian ethnography, folklore and art history.
The Toy Museum: in Cebeci houses toys of all kinds made wood, metal, porcelain, paper etc. (Open wednesday and Friday from 10 am to 5 pm.)
Column of Julian: This clumn, in Ulus, was erected in 362 AD, probably to commemorate a visit by Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate. It stands fifteen meters high and has a typical leaf decoration on the capital.
The Republic Monument: Standing in Ulus Square, this monument was made by an Australian sculptor, Krippel, in momory of the heroes of the Turkish War of Independence. The base of the equestrian statue of Ataturk bears reliefs depicting Ataturk and his soldiers, along with figures symbolizing Turkish women and the young turkish Republic.
Hatti Monument: Erected in the 1970’s in Sihhiye Square, this impressive monument symbolizes the Hatti dos and commemorates Anatolia’s earliest known civilization.
In the province of Ankara there are six thermal centers: Kızılcahamam Kaplica 80 km to the north, Haymana Kaplica 72 to the south, and to the northwest are Ayas Kaplica (57 km), Dutlu Kaplica (85 km), Meliksah in Cubuk and Malikoy in Polatli (80 km). All offer comfortable facilities in which to soak away your cares. The thermal baths have beneficial properties and are, of course, altogether pleasurable.
- Visiting the Anitkabir, the Ankara Citadel and the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations,
- Tasting traditional pancakes and sipping tea at Pirinc Han,
- Taking a walk in the Soguksu Nation Park,
- Going to a thermal spa,
- Seeing the houses of Beypazari
What we call “Cappadocia” today, if only for simplicity, is only a small part of the Hellenistic Kingdom and subsequent Roman Province which bore that name. The original size of the miles further east and west.
Even now, when the valleys around eh town Urgup are relatively easy to reach (it takes about Ankara, or a similar time by car from Ankara), Cappadocia still seems like a lost world to the arriving traveller. It took the 20th century -and perhaps the invention of photography- to make people appreciate the landscape around Urgup. Several of the most important fathers of the early Church lived in this district, but none of them mentions what it looked like.
A 10th-century history tells us that its inhabitants were called troglodytes “because they go under the ground in holes, clefts, and labyrinths, like dens and burrows.” In the 18th century, a French traveler thought he saw pyramids being used as houses, and weird statues of monks and the Virgin Mary.
Three thousand rock churches: Many visitors only make a brief excursion to the cones and rock churches of Goreme, and an hour or two in perhaps Zelve or Ihlara. That’s a pity because Cappadocia is best explored in a leisurely fashion by car or even on horse. Severel local firms are now hiring out horses for trekking expeditions lasting up to eight days. No matter how often you go, no two trips need ever be the same. There are an estimated threee thousand rock churches in the area between Kayseri, Nigde, Gulsehir and Ihlara valley. New caves, new “under ground cities” and even churches are still being discovered from tme to time.
Other churches are isolated. One of the very best as far as wall painting goes is at Eski Gumus in Gumusler village just north of Nigde. Along detour via Mustafapasa and Soganli will take you there, and if you are a Byzantine art buff, it is well worth it. The church, which was restored by British archaeologists in the 1960s, has a completely preserved courtyard (the only one to survive in its entirety) and solemn frescoes in its interior which deserve to be better known. A room upstairs springs a surprise: a smoky wall coverd with non-religious pictures, mostly from Aesop’s fables. What it is doing in this monkish place is anyone’s guess.
Hacibektas: Not everything in Cappadocia is Byzantine, however one of the most impressive of all the antiquities of this region requires only about a 20 minutejourney to north of Gulsehir, at Hacibektas.
Hacibektas was the mother convernt of the Bektasi order of dervishes who served as the cahaplains of the Janissaries, the storm troops of the Ottoman Empire. They were so widespread that 200 years ago it was said that no corner of the Empire was more than half a day’s journey from a Bektasi lodge. The Bektasis were a free thinking, tolerant community. Where else in the world will you see a mosque with a drawing of man in it something normally regarded as taboo in Islam? At the tomb of the founder of the order, Haci Bektas Veli, you will usually see a group of local woman praying. In a separate shrine nearby is the Tomb of Ballum Sultan.
There are still those who remember their former homes in Crete and other parts of Greece with nostalgia and welcome those Greeks who from time to time revisit the places in Cappadocia where they were born towns such as Gelveri, now officially renamed Guzelyurt near Ihlara and Mustafapasa, famous a century ago as Sinassos, south of Urgup.
Sinassos-A Town of Paintings: Towns li Gelveri and the larger and morre magnificent counterpart, Sinassos, never really recovered from the blow they received when the Ottoman Empire collapsed.
Urgup, a lively tourist center at the foot of a rock ridge riddled with old dwellings, serves as an excellent base from which to tour the sights of Cappadocia. In Urgup itself you canstill see how people once lived in homes cut into the rock. If you wish buy carpets and kilims, there is a wide selection available from the town’s many carpet dealers, who are as colorful as their carpets, offering tea, coffee or a glass of wine to their customers and engaging in friendly conversation. If sighseeing and shopping haven’t exhausted you, the disco welcomes you to yet another kind of entertainment. At the center of a successful wine-producing region, Urgup hosts an annual International Wine Festicval In October.
Standing on a bluff above the Mesopotamian flats about 56 miles (90km) south of Diyarbakir is the town of Mardin, arguably the most Arab town -even more Arab than Antakya or Siirt- in Turkey. The vista afforded from the town’s citadel is nearly magical: below, the view stretches across the vastness of the Syrian plain, pancake flat but for the occasional tell of artificial hill desingnating the site of some ancient and forgotten city in the Fertile Crecent.
The area east of Mardin, especially Midyat, is the center of the 40,000 remaining Suriyanis, or Jacobite Christians who continue to speak a sort of proto-Arabic known to scholars as Syriac, erroneously assumed to be the language of Christ.
The Suriyanis of Turkey, unhappily, seem to be a community doomed to cultural extinction in the long run, as more and more of their members either migrate to Istanbul and celebrate mass, along with the remnants of the Levantine community there in the Latin or Armenian churches, and it is unclear just how long the monasteries of Der Zafaran and Mar Gabriel will continue to function as living entities and not as museums. It is, indeed, strange to run into these distant Christians, so deep into Anatolia, with the girls and boys in close contact and uncloistered, even in the villages. The Suriyanis of Midyat are known throughout Turkey as superb jewellers. Many of the top jewllers of the Covered Bazaar of Istanbul, for example, are Suriyanis from Midyat, and they are better off than their Muslim neighbors.
Known is classical times as Amidiya, the city was annexed by Rome in A.D. 297, and became an essential part of the line of defense between the Roman and Parthian/Sassanian empires of persia. It should be noted that in the (unsuccessful) siege of A.D. 359, the Persian, Shapur I, was aided by the proto-Turk Chionites, making their debut on the Anatolian stage. Ceded to the Persians after Julian the Apostate’s ill-fated campaign down the walls were breached by the Muslim armies of Khalid Ibn Walid (the Sword of Islam) in A.D. 639 during the first great expansion of Islam. The city takes it’s current name from the Arab clan of Baqr, which was granted the town and it’s hinterland, dubbing it the “abode of the Baqr”, or Diyarbakir.
The walls:Stretching for some three miles (five km) around the old city, and once possessing 82 defensive towers, the great walls of diyarbakır were first built during the reign of Constantinus and restored repeatedly, most notably by Emperor Justinian, as well as by the Seljuk prince of Isfahan, Malik shah. The main entrance to the old town on the north is the Harput Gate. Once known as the Bab al Arman or Gate is in good condition, with several inscriptions in Greek and Arabic.
For the adventurous only:Among its other charms, Diyarbakir also boasts one of Turkey’s rawest legal whorehouse districts, and a trip from the citadel gate via phaeton or horse-drawn carriage has a certain amusement value for those who crave the bizarre and reckless.Just announce the Genelev as your destination and a 10-year-old brute will settle you into a fly-infested carriage before mercifully cracking the whip to stir the air inside the claustrophobic cabin. The wooden spokes creak, the ill-oiled axles groan and the team of scrawny geldings squeal as the coach begins to crunch and bounce over streets which have never knows repair. The ride can be likened to galloping through the ill-fit, foggy back-streets of London’s Soho district in 1840, and should not be missed.
The whorehouse district itself seems nearly sedate and well-kept after the drive through the ghetto. The talent comes in various shapes and sizes, ranging from the fallen darlings to toothless, old hags. All, however, have the deadened look in the eyes of the souls of those who know they have hit the rock-bottom. A visit here costs about $5 and lasts that long.
For those who prefer to pay more for mere titillation, Diyarbakir alson boasts a few nightclubs or gazino north of town which can be warned that the girls working the bars are paid by the drinks they manage to get a customer to buy them.
Mosques, mosques and more mosques: The most distinctive of the town’s 22 older mosques (not counting the more intimate mescit or prayer rooms) is the Ulu Cami or Grand Mosque, the oldest place of Muslim worship in Anatolia. It is about halfway down Izzet Paşa Caddesi, Diyarbakir’s main drag, between the Harput and Mardin Gates on the north-south axis. Originally, the structure was not built as a mosque at all, but as the primary Syriac cathedral named Mar Touma or St.Thomas, until Diyarbakir was conquered by the Muslims, after which the church was converted into a mosque.
Similar in design to the, admittedly, much grander Umayyad Mosque in Damascus ( acity that Diyarbakir closely resembles), the Ulu Cami is packed with the pious on Friday for prayers-a good time to visit if one is not bashful. The mosque itself is built on the courtyard plan familiar to mosque in Arabia as opposed to the covered and domed mosque of the rest of Turkey. Note the fountain in the middle of the courtyard used for ritual washing before prayers, as well as the wildly different Corinthian columns at the back of the courtyard.
Up and down Izzet Pasha, one encounters dozens ıf buildings-either mosques, medreses or caravansaries- that alternating black and white stone blocks- giving the town a decidedly checkerboard look. The first of these structures is the Peygamber Camii or Mosque of the Prophet Muhammad, so named due to the vocal calisthenics of a 16th-century muezzin ( the one who calls the faitful to prayer from atop a minaret ), whose plaintive invocation of the Prophet’s name kept the neighbors awake. It was, in fact, built by Kasap Hajji Hüseyin (“The Butcher”) in 1530. Opposite the mosque, towards the left, is one of the major east-west axis in town, on which the popular Demir Hotel is located.
And the end of the street is the entrance to the citadel or Iç Kale, and at the entrance of which is another checkerboard mosque, known variously as the Citadel Mosque, the Nasiriye Mosque and the Mosque of St.Süleyman. It was built in 1155 by Abu al-Qassim Ali in honor of the 24 early Muslim martyrs who first breached the walls during